**The modern development of calculators:**

Early calculators were purely manual, such as abacus, calculation chips, etc. The abacus is usually made of sliding beads. In the West, the abacus was used for centuries before Indian Arabic numerals became popular, and it is still widely used in modern Chinese accounting and business. Later, mechanical calculators appeared. At the beginning of the 17th century, the calculation tools in Western countries had a great development. The British mathematician Napier invented the “Napier calculation chip”, and the British priest Ochoder invented the cylindrical logarithmic slide rule. This kind of slide rule is not only It can do addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, power, square extraction, and even calculation of trigonometric functions, exponential functions and logarithmic functions. These calculation tools not only promote the development of calculators, but also lay a good foundation for the development of modern calculators. Computing tools are widely used in modern society.

**General calculator**

In the past, some calculators were as big as today’s computers. The first mechanical calculator was a desktop mechanical device, but it was quickly replaced by a desktop electrical mechanical calculator, and later it was relied on materials such as vacuum tubes, transistors, and integrated circuit logic circuits. Order replaced. Most calculators today are palm-sized microelectronic devices.